Drug response can be affected by a wide range of factors, including genetics, age and certain environmental considerations. The differences in genetic makeup between individuals plays a big role on drug response. The effectiveness of drugs depends on our DNA, as DNA directly determines the level of activity of our enzymes. Therefore, in order to get the best possible treatment, we need pharmacogenomics tests to determine which drugs work best for us.
Pharmacogenomics test combines the technology in pharmacology and genomics. It analyses our DNA to predict how we may respond to most medications. This is the study called gene-drug interactions, the relationship between genetic variations in human genomic sequences and how body responds to medications. As the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic drugs vary substantially across individuals. Pharmacogenomics test determines a patient’s genetic makeup with a high throughput screening technology and to tailor prescribe a treatment based on individual drug metabolism. This is a therapeutic approach in which clinician use your test results to determine which medical treatments will work best for you. This test combines the data from the test with your medical history, environmental status, your clinician can precisely prescribe a best treatment and provide prevention plans named personalised medicine.
Genes are the basic unit that indicates the function of the human body. In humans, a cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair is inherited from mother and the other pair from father. There are hundreds to thousands of genes in one chromosome. Each human cell has around 23,000 genes. Genes are made up of DNA that contain the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. In humans, more than 99.9% of our DNA sequence is identical. The remaining small differences between us contribute to the unique physical and chemical features called genetic variation. This genetic variation determines our difference in appearances, personalities, genetic traits as well as disease susceptibility and individual’s drug response.