The most common genetic mutations in breast cancer occur in the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes, there are also other genes related to breast cancer. When BRCA 1 & 2 mutates, it increases the risk of breast cancer or even other cancers, such as ovarian cancer and prostate cancer.
BRCA 1 & 2 gene mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning if the child gets the abnormal gene from only one parent, the child will inherit the mutated gene and has a higher risk of getting cancer. Whether the BRCA gene mutation is found in a male or a female, it has a 50% chance of inheriting the BRCA 1 & 2 gene mutation to the next generation.
The frequency of breast cancer screening recommended by each person may not be the same. People with genetic risk of breast cancer should perform breast cancer screening more frequently than the rest of the population. You can refer to the following recommended procedures issued by the National Comprehensive Cancer Institute (NCCN).
|Screening Method||Population Risk||Hereditary Risk|
|Clinical Examination||Once a year||Every 6-12 months|
|Mammogram||Once a year||Once a year (or breast MRI scan)|
|Sonography Screening||No related suggestion||No related suggestion|
|Breast MRI Scan||No related suggestion||Once a year (or mammogram)|