Are genes related to the development of a cancer?
Oncogenes are mutated genes that lead to uncontrollable cell
growth and cancers. Mutated HER2 is one of the example, which
play a role in developing cancer such as breast cancers.
Tumour suppressor genes are responsible for taming abnormal cell
growth. They act as a braking system to stop the cell from
out-of-control multiplying. Mutations in tumour suppressor genes can
disrupt its regulation or function, and eventually lead to cancers.
P53 is a well-known tumour suppressor gene whose mutations were
commonly found in cancers.
Somatic mutations may happen randomly during the complex cell division
process. DNA repair genes, such as ATM, BRCA1,
BRCA2, MSH2, and MSH6, are responsible for
repairing mismatches in DNA. When a DNA repair gene is mutated, somatic
mutation may accumulate at a higher rate over time.
It usually takes several mutations to develop cancers. Understanding the
genetics of cancer may help understand the diagnosis, treatment, and
prevention of the disease.